HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN INDONESIA
Human trafficking in Indonesia is very dangerous. This condition occurs in very large cities such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Bali, West Nusa Tenggara and other towns. The crime can be experienced by neighbors, relatives or even children. Human trafficking happens in the category of prostitution involving children come to be the object of sexual
According to the UN, Indonesia is the 2nd ranked as the most common state of human trafficking in the worl. Indonesia is known as the sender, and at the same time producing reservoir criminal action. This condition because of the rise of economic trouble condition.
“I am often confronted with commercial sex workers ( CSWs ), aged 12-16 years, even in the age that much there are already HIV positive and become a pimp for his friends, “said psychologist Riza Wahyu, S.Psi. ,M.Si, Psi., when the seminar titled ” Save Our Children from Violence ” at the Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, UIN Sunan Kalidjaga Yogyakarta, on Monday ( 14/5 /2013).
He said, the victims of human trafficking as a prostitute, not knowing if it is a victim of crime. Because getting the lure of money, they are willing to accompany a smooth operator who then ended in sexually transmitted diseases.
“But more important is to address the condition of the victim after the violence and sexual exploitation, namely support for survival or support to victims in order not to give up and continue to survive. This is because usually after knowing his condition, the victims are depressed, like hurting yourself by not eating , not sleeping until commit suicide, “said Riza.
According to him, not just the victims, we also need to focus on families who could potentially make an immediate impact for the victim, for example, isolated and so forth.” Moreover, the Indonesian people most easily influenced by labeling ( labeling or imaging ) is actually categorized as a victim,” said one of the facilitators for the IOM – UN violence women and children in Indonesia.
Based on his experience during the period of 9 years in the treatment of victims of violence against women and children, he said that the victims tend to be closed, even lied when giving the report to the counselor.
Not to mention the problem of honor, because cases of sexual exploitation in economic circles above, these cases tend to be hermetically sealed.
Overcome this phenomenon, Riza asked all parties should actively disseminate through school, college or youth haunts. Better yet, if socialization also fostered empathy or minimize the negative stigma on victims of sexual exploitation.
“I was with some friends the other psychologists also is working on socialization through the media close to the younger generation such as comic books or posters,” said Riza.
National Agency for Placement and Protection of Indonesian Workers remind the public to be aware of the practice of law violations such as trafficking ( human trafficking ) and smuggling of persons (people smuggling ) under the guise of placement workers abroad .
“The high demand for migrant workers to various countries imposed moratorium or cessation of TKI placement of domestic helpers to Malaysia , Saudi Arabia , Kuwait , Jordan , and Syria has made a case of human trafficking and smuggling of people show up , ” said Director of Mediation and Advocacy BNP2TKI Teguh Hendro Cahyono the electronic mail received here on Saturday.
Director of Mediation and Advocacy BNP2TKI underlined that moment with Kadisnakertransos Bojonegoro Adi Abrams, Chairman of the National Board of Indonesian Migrant Workers Union ( SBMI ) Murniaty Erni, and representatives of the International Organization for Migration Hendra Adi, to disseminate the placement and protection of migrant workers in the Village Square / Dander sub-districts, Bojonegoro, East Java , on Friday ( 22/11 ).
Teguh Hendro Cahyono mention that BNP2TKI with police officers often carry out raids against suspected various shelters are doing the practice of human trafficking or smuggling of people under the guise of migrant workers.
In fact, he said that Chief BNP2TKI Moh Jumhur Hidayat on Wednesday night ( 20/11 ) led a raid shelters in Tebet, South Jakarta , who are suspected of human trafficking and get about 40 women who will be employed abroad illegally and detain a person the shelter manager.
He asserted that the government imposed a moratorium on the placement of migrant domestic helpers to Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Jordan, and Syria as countries that are not able to guarantee good protection of migrant workers, but these countries need the services of workers.
These conditions, he said , fishing certain parties to commit unlawful acts such as human trafficking and people smuggling.
“The government firmly combating human trafficking and smuggling of people, “said Teguh .He said the case of trade in human beings and smuggling of people is quite complex and should be handled with participation of all relevant agencies and the public , do not be fooled by the lure of certain parties who offer large salaries to work abroad , but through a shortcut .
In fact, he says, cases of human trafficking and human smuggling can occur not only in the placement of illegal migrants but also can occur in workers who have the complete document ,for example, puts workers to various countries are not affected by the moratorium but then after arriving overseas, they brought to various countries affected by the moratorium.
“So the complete documented only can get stuck in ‘ trafficking ‘, especially not with the departing official documents, ” said Teguh Hendro Cahyono answer spontaneous questions from the audience over the various cases of migrant workers abroad.
According to Teguh Hendro Cahyono, the emergence of many cases because there is a problem in the placement of workers.
“Problems arise because of migrants from the beginning there was the issue of the self- TKI, such as leaving out of the country because of family problems or because the debt is pursued. Thing like this usually causes trouble ahead”.
Meanwhile Hendra Adi said the public, government , and NGOs should jointly fight against human trafficking and human smuggling. For that he asks people who want to work abroad seeked legal and follow the procedures set by the government.” Do not believe the brokers because the brokers do not know the procedure of a migrant worker, “he said.
He stressed IOM supported 150 countries in the world continue to help people of the world in order to take proper migration procedures.
“Official TKI will be safe and protected from fraud . If you set out according to the law the government if you have a problem then the government will be able to follow up and get their rights, “said Hendra.
State Minister for Women Empowerment and Child Protection Linda Amalia Sari Gumelar said Friday ( 21/6 ) , an estimated 20 percent of Indonesian workers ( TKI ) are working abroad are victims of human trafficking.
Currently there are an estimated 6.5 million to 9 million workers who work abroad , Linda said on the sidelines of a national coordination meeting the protection of women and children in Denpasar.
Linda said, based on data from the organization of international migration ( IOM ), 70 percent of the mode of human trafficking in Indonesia began with the illegal sending workers abroad . In the period 2010 to 2012, the IOM noted that there were 1,180 victims have been repatriated and assisted, said Linda.
“With the advancement of IT ( information technology ), it is also one of the possibilities that could increase human trafficking, why earlier I said that the advancement of information and technology should be followed carefully and also empowering people, especially women, ” he said.
Chairman of the Care of Women and Children ( KPPA ) Ni Nyoman Bali Suparni asked the government not only to prevent and provide protection for women and children who are victims. The government also must waive the fee vise for women and children who are victims of violence and sexual abuse, he said.
“If the post mortem that we find it very difficult . There are no free ones. Ask no policy for sexual abuse victims and children in conflict with the law . Please no policy released and not complicated, it is sometimes difficult for the hospital, if you do not pay do not want to be taken ,” he said.
Meanwhile, Bali Governor Made Mangku Pastika expressed in the prevention and control efforts against human trafficking, the provincial government of Bali has had the rule of law in the form of Local Regulation.
“Socialization this regulation continues to be strengthened, especially for early prevention and control of human trafficking. We must give thanks in Bali until now there is no indication of cases of trafficking ( trafficking ) like this, ” he said.
In an effort to prevent and address crime of trade in human beings has now formed the Integrated Service Center for Women and Children victims of violence or P2TP2A in 27 provinces and 197 districts / cities. Moreover taskforce has been established in 27 provinces and 88 districts / cities.
While Ernie Murniati asking people to be careful if you get a tempting lure to work abroad.” I was a real example of a victim of trafficking , many of my peers with which to work abroad because of the lure of lucrative . Ask the authorities before working abroad, ” he said.
Indonesian women migrate to Malaysia, Singapore, and the Middle East and subsequently undergo forced prostitution, Indonesian women are also experiencing forced prostitution and forced labor in the country. According to the Directorate General of Tourism Destination Development, there are an estimated 40,000 to 70,000 Indonesian children are exploited in prostitution in the country. Children are trafficked within and out of the country, especially to be a housekeeper, forced prostitution, and a cottage industry.
Many girls are trafficked, working 14-16 hours a day with very low wages , often snared debt constantly having to pay back the advances that have been given to the family by Indonesian middleman . Debt bondage is especially prominent among the victims of the sex trade, with initial debt of approximately $ 600 to $ 1,200 imposed on the victim , plus accumulated other expenses and debts, women and girls are often not able to escape from the bondage of debt, even after many years in prostitution.
Traffickers also kidnap girls and young women for the sex trade at home and abroad . More than 25 victims of sex trafficking of Uzbekistan identified in 2010 , and there have been reports of the victims who came from China, Thailand, the countries of Central Asia, and Eastern Europe are experiencing exploitation in Indonesia.
Trends in recruitment of Indonesian migrant workers in Malaysia for Umrah , the religious pilgrimage to Mecca continued in 2010 ; never happened in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , Indonesian migrant workers trafficked to other places in the Middle East . A large number of Indonesian girls in the sex trade were recruited through Internet social networking media in the same year.
Trafficking within the country is also a significant problem in Indonesia , women and girls are exploited as domestic workers , commercial sexual exploitation , and forced labor of agriculture , mining , and fisheries in inland areas . Many victims were initially recruited to be offered employment in restaurants, factories , or as domestic workers before being forced into prostitution . Child sex tourism is prevalent in most urban areas and tourist destinations , such as Bali and Riau Islands . Some traffickers continue to forge partnerships with school officials to recruit men and young women in a vocational program for forced labor on fishing boats through fraudulent chance ” intern “. In April 2011, the National Coalition Government of Indonesia established the Elimination of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in the University of Indonesia as a first step to resolve the issue.
The Indonesian government does not fully comply with minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; , but the effort is significant . During 2010 , the Government made efforts to improve the coordination and reporting of anti-trafficking efforts . However , the government did not enact legislation Indonesian Labor or criminal sanctions are sufficient to labor recruitment companies that make Indonesian migrant workers facing labor trafficking.
Moreover , the government did not show a strong effort to investigate , prosecute and punish criminal law enforcement agencies involved in human trafficking , and it is still a major challenge for anti-trafficking efforts by the Government and NGOs.
During 2010, the Indonesian government made a number of reforms that significantly improve the coordination and effectiveness of the 19 ministries and state agencies involved in the handling of human trafficking. Government to clarify the role of the National Agency for the Placement and Protection of Indonesian Workers ( BNP2TKI ) in Foreign Affairs in implementing the Labor Law of Indonesia of 2004 ( Law No. 39 ), which became the basis of the establishment of the agency. New immigration laws set and provide additional legal instruments to address the involvement of law enforcement officials in human trafficking and smuggling, and Bill ( Draft Law ) is more progressive to protect Indonesian Workers, including victims of human trafficking more effectively. Recognizing the high vulnerability of Indonesian migrant workers in some recipient countries, the Government imposed a ban on Indonesian women migrant workers certification other will go to Saudi Arabia and Jordan; rule is a continuation of the ban on pre-existing Indonesian female migrant workers who will go to Malaysia.
The Indonesian government continued efforts of law enforcement anti-trafficking last year , although the number of traders who reportedly exposed to prosecutions and convictions decreased significantly. This decrease may be due to improved system of data collection and reporting on law enforcement by the Government of Indonesia’s increasingly decentralized.
By law a comprehensive anti -trafficking passed in 2007 and implemented in 2009 , Indonesia banned all forms of human trafficking , provides penalties of three to 15 years in prison. These penalties are sufficiently stringent and commensurate with those who commit other serious crimes, such as rape. However, many police and prosecutors , who are still unfamiliar with this law, are often reluctant or unsure of how to use it effectively to punish traffickers. While police reportedly used the 2007 law to prepare the prosecution case, some prosecutors and judges still use other, more common law to prosecute traffickers.
During 2010, police investigated 106 people were arrested and charged with offenses under the law of 2007. During 2010, the government prosecute 112 suspected traffickers according to the law of 2007, compared with 138 in 2009 demanded. The Indonesian government punish offenders 25 in 2010 , compared with 84 who was convicted in 2009 .
The number is significantly less convicted in 2010 , in part because of data reporting formats that are used by national law enforcement authorities and the province has been updated and improved so that only the reporting month of January to June 2010 were used for this report only covers the case law imposed anti-trafficking legislation in 2007 , not counting the number of convicted under child labor laws and immigration. National task force to consolidate the anti-trafficking data collection , face challenges in collecting complete data from law enforcement authority of provincial and district levels.
Indonesian officials and local NGOs continue to criticize the police as being too passive in investigating complaints of human trafficking are not specifically complained. NGOs also reported that in cases where police rescue victims of human trafficking, the police often fail to pursue the traffickers who fled to other regions or abroad.
Although the police are often aware of children in prostitution or other trafficking situations, but often failed to intervene to arrest people who may be victims of traffickers or protect without special reports from third parties . Liaison officer ( liaison officers ) police assigned to the Indonesian Embassy in Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, Australia, the Philippines , and Thailand in support of law enforcement cooperation with the host government , including human trafficking investigation. During 2010, the Government of Indonesia has expanded cooperation with foreign partners and NGOs in the training of law enforcement officials on human trafficking
.Criminal Investigation unit in Surabaya focuses on prostitutes. In September 2010, they arrested two gang heads trafficking. Twenty victims were rescued and referred the case to prosecution. Police also found a case where the parents of three daughters, who live in poor areas in Surabaya, sells his daughter to the local pimp. Also in East Java in May 2010 in Malang Police arrest owner of labor recruitment companies Jaya Sakti PT Sodo over alleged involvement in human trafficking.
During the year, government officials and civil society representatives to discuss the draft law on migrant workers who will address the significant gaps in the legislation of 2004 . By March 2011 the Indonesian Parliament passed legislation replacing the new immigration law in 1992 that provides penalties of up to two years in prison for officials found guilty of aiding and abetting human trafficking or smuggling . The new law also linking trade and human smuggling which allows traffickers are also required for the crime of smuggling.
Corruption remains a problem endemic in Indonesia and by NGOs and local officials , security forces continued to be involved either directly or indirectly in trafficking. Police and military personnel sometimes associated with brothels and became a shield for prostitution , often by picking up the protection money , which is a widespread practice . Some of the security forces is also an owner of a brothel . Intermediary recruitment company involved in human trafficking and commit fraud often operate outside the reach of the law as it has impunity.
According to reports , some officials of the Ministry of Labor grant permission and protect international labor recruitment agencies involved in trafficking , though officials knew about the agency ‘s involvement in human trafficking . Some recruitment agents who cheat have links with family or friends or police officials who conduct transactions when caught , and then also handle passport issuance services are still subject to widespread corruption . Labor recruitment agencies routinely falsified birth dates , including for children in order to take care of migrant workers’ passports and documents.
The Ministry of Labor was openly declared identify and penalize these companies and the media often report the arrest of labor recruitment companies . According to the report , in April 2011 the authorities arrested two representatives of the recruitment agency for falsifying documents two Indonesian domestic workers who are sent by the company to Saudi Arabia , and brutally tortured there . However , the Ministry has not been able to show statistical data about various actions that have been performed . Some local officials facilitated trafficking by providing false information to issue national identity cards and data cards for the families of children , which allows them to be recruited to work as an adult at home and abroad.
International organizations and third countries diplomats reported that in exchange for bribes , some immigration officials turn a blind eye to the potential victims of human trafficking , or the filter fails to act on the basis of the due diligence process ( due diligence ) in processing passport and immigration control . International NGOs reported that Indonesian immigration officials are corrupt stationed abroad to cooperate with a human trafficking gang to supply the victims to brothels . There were credible reports that elements of the police and military are involved in running brothels containing human trafficking victims from foreign countries such as Uzbekistan . When warned by the embassy of origin of victims of such problems , according to the report , the police refused to rescue the women . Although some reports indicate the involvement of law enforcement officials in human trafficking during the year, the government did not report any investigation , prosecution , punishment , or sentence to government officials for the violations related to trafficking such as this.
The Indonesian government continued modest but uneven efforts to protect victims of trafficking during the year. Ministry of Social Affairs continues to operate 22 shelters and clinicsto deal with trauma victims of sex and labor trafficking and the police run a few ” one-stop shops, ” which provides medical services to victims of violence , which can also be accessed by victims of human trafficking. But the Indonesian government did not report how many victims of human trafficking who have received assistance from the service center. The government continues to run more than 500 women’s service area at the district level to help women and children victims of violence , including victims of human trafficking.
The government relies heavily on international organizations and NGOs to provide services to victims , such as the IOM’s assistance to run the service centers integrated police , and provide limited funding for domestic NGOs and civil society groups that support services for victims , including victims of human trafficking . Most of the security forces did not follow formal procedures to identify and refer victims from vulnerable groups such as women in prostitution , children who move to other areas in the country , and the workers who returned from abroad , but refer some victims to health workers are ad hoc.
Part of the reason is the lack of funds so that the police are often forced to return victims of human trafficking to his home on the day they were rescued , without providing adequate shelter or assistance . These actions jeopardize the successful prosecution of human trafficking cases and victims are often put back into the hands of human traffickers were awaiting the return of the victim and the opportunity to sell it back.
During 2010, the Government of Indonesia to continue funding for the protection of victims of human trafficking by allocating a fund of 133,000 U.S. dollars through the Ministry of Women’s Empowerment and Child Protection ( Minister of PP & PA ) in particular for assistance to victims of human trafficking . An additional 3.1 million U.S. dollars given by the Minister of PP & PA for the protection of women and children , although it is not known which part will benefit victims of human trafficking.
Ministry of Social Affairs continued several programs including the operation of trauma centers, providing more skilled workers and psychosocial trauma, and trauma care training .
Screening of migrant workers to look for evidence of trafficking in Jakarta International Airport Terminal Four is still not sufficient , nearly 40 percent of legal migrant workers were on their way to another destination other than the country of Malaysia through this terminal . Officers at the airport terminal estimates that more than 35 percent of the back is a victim of human trafficking , although for some reason they are reluctant to report the problem. Seven ministries operate Terminal Four and the result is that migrant workers returning from abroad , the amount exceeds 1,000 people per day, was forced to pay excessive costs for inadequate service.
Migrant workers who returned to Indonesia are required to use transportation that is regulated by the Ministry of Transportation at exorbitant prices . No family members or friends who are permitted to meet with them to return home. Police claim certain expenses for travel and shipping information.
Some trafficking victims detained and arrested by the police , including through an ambush in prostitution , some anti- prostitution raids conducted by the police in order to take a bribe from the manager and owner of the venue. There are reports that some police refused to receive complaints from victims of human trafficking, victims urged to reach an informal settlement with the perpetrators of human trafficking.
Some government officials encourage victims to assist in the investigation and prosecution of human trafficking cases , while others are less concerned with the cooperation of the victim. Protracted litigation often leads to victims of cooperation while avoiding prosecution against traffickers, other than that, the government does not provide adequate funding for victims who have to travel to the hearing. Authorities continued to arrest and deport a small number of women working in prostitution without determining whether they are victims of human trafficking. Indonesian Foreign Ministry continues to operate shelters for victims of human trafficking and migrant workers in some embassies and consulates abroad. Diplomatic shelter into the shelter of thousands of Indonesian citizens who are in distress, including victims of human trafficking.
The Indonesian government made efforts to prevent human trafficking during the reporting period . Ministry of Women Empowerment and Child Protection Task Force is leading the national anti-trafficking , including the sub- working group coordination , policy , and other areas . Indonesian Vice President chaired a national task force meeting in October 2010 in which 19 agencies were assigned to form a six- member working group and the involvement of all members of the work plan and budget in line with the National Action Plan on Human Trafficking 2009-2014 . PP & PA Minister chaired a meeting of the follow-up of the task force in January 2011 to develop a plan of the six working groups .
Although progress has been made in coordinating anti-trafficking national government, the secretariat of the task force continues to face funding and inadequate staff. During the reporting period, the number of provinces that have an anti-trafficking task force increased to 20 , along with a total of 72 counties and cities that have their own task force.
The Ministry of Education launched a campaign to raise awareness across Indonesia warning of vulnerable populations, especially girls in vocational schools in poorer areas, to the dangers of human trafficking and to inform their rights. Similarly, Minister of PP & PA displaying public service ads throughout Indonesia which warns about human trafficking and provide the information that must be contacted and can provide relief for victims.
The government continues to partner with NGOs and international organizations to raise public awareness about human trafficking . It is the result of coordination between the members of the joint task force against human trafficking . The Indonesian government negotiations with the Government of Malaysia on the 2006 amendments to the agreement document that protect Indonesian domestic workers stalled this year , according to the report , because the deadlock on the issue of minimum wage and weekly days demanded the Indonesian government for domestic workers. As a result, the Indonesian government ban on the emigration of domestic workers to Malaysia remains valid . MOU in 2006 giving authority to the employer to hold the passports of Indonesian domestic workers while working in Malaysia was supposed to be working right.
During this year the Indonesian government to clarify the mandate BNP2TKI , established under Law Labor Placement and Protection of 2004 ( Act No. 39 ). In previous years , the Ministry of Labor BNP2TKI and each claimed their respective mandates over the placement and protection of Indonesian migrant workers . BNP2TKI officially appointed as the sole executor of the laws of 2004 through a decree issued by the Minister of Labour in October 2010. According to reports , the Ministry of Labor compiled a list of about 100 Indonesian employment agencies ( agency) who is suspected of malpractice and abuses potentially contribute to labor trafficking ; but until now none of the government does not punish the recruitment agency . The government did not report efforts to reduce demand for forced labor or commercial sex acts during the year.-